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Reduction of emissions
Value created/GHG emissions (€/tCO2)
Specific CO2 emissions Scope 1 (gCO2/kWh)
Reduction of specific SO2 emissions
Reduction of specific NOx emissions (%)
Reduction of specific particulate matter emissions (%)

The fight against climate change is one of the primary challenges for our Group, so we have defined specific actions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improving air quality in the areas in which we operate, while focusing on developing our renewable capacity and gradually closing coal-fired plants.

As of 2021, the ratio between the value created by the Group and the emissions from activities with the highest carbon footprint (i.e., those from power generation and those from gas and power sales to end customers) amounts to 238 €/tCO2. Specific emissions of CO2 have fallen to 227 gCO2eq/kWh, down 45% from 2017 in confirmation of the progress made towards our Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi) certified target of 82 gCO2eq/kWh by 2030.

The slight increase from 2020 (+5%) is due to the greater production of energy at our thermal plants. 

Specific emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) were 0.07 g/kWheq ( 92% down from 2017), while specific nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were 0.35 g/kWheq ( 56% down from 2017) and particulate emissions were 0.005 g/kWheq ( 98% down from 2017).

Reduction of specific water requirement 1

1. vs. 2017 base year 

2. The circularity improvement index measures reduced consumption of materials and fuels at Group plants throughout their lifecycle compared to 2015

The responsible use of water is essential to protecting natural ecosystems and ensuring the wellbeing of all who live in those ecosystems, as well as to the success of our business.  The Group uses water primarily for industrial purposes, and mainly in thermal and nuclear power generation in order to cool thermal cycles or in processes aiming at reducing atmospheric emissions.

In 2021, we had a specific requirement of 0.21 l/kWh, which is stable compared to 2020 (0.20 l/kWh) and is in line with the Group’s reduction target (of -55% vs. 2017).  Total water withdrawals for industrial processes and closed-cycle cooling was roughly 55.6 Mm3 in 2021, an increase of about 8% compared to 2020 due to the increase in thermal power generation. 

Progetto WaVE

In 2020, Enel Green Power & Thermal Generation launched the project WaVE (Water Value Enhancement) to assess water use at our thermal and renewable energy production sites and to plan specific, innovative improvement measures, particularly in water-stressed areas.



The circular economy is an accelerator of growth throughout the whole value chain. A circular approach makes it possible to reduce both waste and the use of finite natural resources, while maintaining the value of goods and materials. In this way, we generate benefits for the environment related not only to the reduction of emissions all along the value chain, but more in general to the mitigation of all kind of impacts, from the consumption of water and other natural resources to the production of waste and the loss of biodiversity.


Circular economy
Consumption of fuels and materials at our plants throughout their whole lifecycle has decreased by 62% from 2015.
Circularity throughout the value chain

To adopt the circular economy on a systemic basis, Enel is taking integrated action across all areas of business, engaging suppliers and customers, so as to have an effective, structured approach to redesigning our business model. The main areas of action concern suppliers' relationships, asset management, and customer management.



Preserving ecosystems and their flora and fauna means respecting life, our planet’s natural heritage, and the places and symbols of our communities. At Enel, we are aware of this value and manage natural resources responsibly when designing, building and operating our production sites, in the management of our transmission and distribution grids, and in the provision of innovative services to our customers. 

In 2021, Enel’s commitment to biodiversity encompassed 183 projects to protect the flora, fauna and natural habitats at our production sites, 60 of which in partnership with universities and other government bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), for a total investment of €8.2 million and 9,092 hectares (22,467 acres) of natural habitat reclaimed.

The balance between nature and solar energy

In 2021, Enel began an experimental agrivoltaics program involving 9 solar plants in Spain, Italy and Greece with the goal of demonstrating the technical and financial feasibility of using land for both large, ground-based solar plants and agriculture, while preserving local biodiversity and ecosystem services and serving local communities through a multi-stakeholder approach.



Production of renewable energy (% of total) in 2021

We are the world’s largest renewable energy player in the private sector with 53.4 GW of managed capacity and posted record renewable energy production for the second year in a row at roughly 118 TWh, accounting for 51% of total production1.

1. Includes managed production. Renewable energy production at the consolidated level totaled 109 TWh and thermal production totaled 114 TWh, for an overall total of 223 TWh.

Investments aligned with the European taxonomy
Investments aligned with the SDGs
In 2021, we accelerated the energy transition with more than €13 billion in investments, 93% of which was in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. Of the total, 85% of investments concerned activities eligible under and aligned with the European taxonomy.